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Differential relay is also called differential protection relay, which is widely used in the relay protection of electric generator, electromotor, transformer and bus in power system. In brief, it is using to compare the current on both ends of the device that be protected, when normal, the current of both ends one input and one output, cancel each other out, when short circuit happen in internal, the current input internal at the same time, and turn on the relay, the exit makes switch tripping to help protecting electric generator, electromotor, and transformer.
Working principle of differential relay
The basic principle of the differential relay is AC magnetic brake. Differential winding access protective differential circuit, balanced and braking winding access circulation loop, the action process of differential relay is in normal circumstances or through- circuit, through the braking winding is the current, transformer secondary current or all short-circuit current. Braking ampere turn generates two part flux, one part of the magnetic flux circulate in part magnetic circuit, its function is to enable the iron core saturation, automatically increase the operating current, thus avoid the false operation of the relay, which is called AC magnetic brake. On this part of the effect of the magnetic flux, the four braking windings are independent of each other, there is no relationship among them, and it will occur electromagnetic induction with secondary winding. Braking ampere turn also generates another part flux ΦZC, it circulating along the entire circuit, and induced inductive potential in secondary winding, that is brake winding has the function of partly working winding.
Several common types of differential relay
BCH-1 differential relay
Usage: The relay has a braking winding, and can carry out single phase differential protection to the two winding and the three winding power transformer.
Structure overview: The relay is composed of DL-11 electromagnetic current relay (executive component) and an intermediate fast saturation converter (hereinafter referred to as the converter). The relay has a braking winding, which constitutes the main technical performance of the differential relay, such as braking characteristics, avoiding magnetizing inrush current characteristic and the performance of the auto converter which can eliminate the unbalanced current effect.
BCH-2 differential relay
Usage: BCH-2 differential relay (hereinafter referred to as the relay) is used in the two winding or three winding power transformer and the single phase differential protection
circuit of the AC generator, as main protection.
The structure differential relay is composed of two parts: DL-11 current relay and intermediate saturation converter (hereinafter referred to as converter). The former as the executive component, the latter has a short circuit winding, which constitutes some of the main technical performance of differential relay, such as DC magnetic bias, and the performance of the auto converter which can eliminate the unbalanced current.